There was a time when electric vehicles were a rarity on the road, and technology seemed foreign to us. However, with the rapid technological advancements, the buzz around electric vehicles grew, leading to the launch of numerous EV models by automotive manufacturers. As the demand for electric vehicles continues to rise, the need for better designed EV charging stations becomes increasingly important. Infact, in 2022, the global count of public charging points reached 2.7 million, with over 900,000 installations occurring during that year alone. This represents a substantial 55% increase compared to 2021’s figures.
Now it’s important to note that the new charging stations that are planted or will be planted are designed in a particular manner that they can accommodate quickly evolving EV charging ecosystem.
Designing an EV charging station presents a set of distinct challenges that need to be addressed. The electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) must effectively incorporate communication, safety, and security features while also considering the potential for future grid integration. It is crucial for the charging station design to provide a seamless upgrade path, allowing for easy adaptation to emerging technologies and evolving grid infrastructure requirements. Balancing these requirements ensures that the charging station not only meets the immediate needs of electric vehicle owners but also remains compatible and efficient as the electric vehicle landscape continues to evolve.
Let Us First Understand the Components That Make Up an EV Charger Design
EV charging station designs utilize a multitude of components, as it is not a one-size-fits-all approach. While charging stations installed at homes and petrol stations may differ in their specific configurations, they share many common components. Ensuring the use of effective components is of paramount importance to create a user-friendly, efficient, and visually appealing charging station.
Here is a comprehensive list of the components commonly employed in EV charging station designs:
Dual Color Beacons
Dual-color beacons serve as visual indicators of the status of an EV charging station. These beacons utilize colors such as green or red to convey information about the battery charge level or the availability of the EV charger. For instance, a green light may indicate a sufficient charge or availability for use, while a red light may signify a low charge or unavailability.
Cable Entry Systems
Cable entry systems are used in confined spaces to manage cables and pipes. These pre-assembled components find application in charging stations and power distribution panels.
Heaters and Fans
Heaters and fans are essential components in EV charging station design, chosen based on factors like station size, location, and type. These components play a crucial role in maintaining optimal temperatures, preventing damage from low temperatures and condensation.
Terminal rails serve as protective measures in electric vehicle stations, ensuring safety for other components within the system. Their incorporation into the electrical control system is imperative, making them an essential part of the overall setup.
EMC Cable Glands
EMC cable glands are crucial components found in EV charging stations, responsible for safeguarding supply and signaling cables. Their role is to prevent external interference that could disrupt the station’s electronics and communication. These glands ensure a stable and reliable connection to the cable screen.
Enclosures play a vital role in protecting the electrical components within an electric vehicle charging station from external elements. They also ensure the safety of users. Opting for high-quality and durable enclosures can not only enhance the aesthetics of the charging station but also allow for customization to fit specific brand requirements.
eInfochips has successfully developed an EV charging management platform for a client seeking remote control and monitoring capabilities for their residential and commercial fleet of EV chargers. The client desired an OCCP-compliant charging management system.
To learn more about this case study, please check – EV Charging Management Platform Development.
Design Recommendations for EV Charging Stations
Charging an EV fully at a public station takes an average of 1 hour and 17 minutes, highlighting the significance of efficient charging infrastructure that is also safe.
Safety- The primary concern in electric vehicle technology is safety, especially considering that charging stations operate at voltages higher than 120V in residential settings. When it comes to DC charging, there is a heightened risk of electric shock, as it can reach levels between 400V and 1000V. Electric shock may occur due to accidental contact with conductors and grounding. Insulation breakdown, caused by dust or moisture on the circuit, can contribute to this issue. However, the installation of a ground-fault protection device can prevent such incidents. This device safeguards drivers from electrocution in case of a damaged 1000-volt charging nozzle. When it detects an earth leak, it automatically cuts off power to the output side, ensuring the safety of the user.
Efficiency- Carbon emissions were the main driving factor behind the transition from fossil fuel-powered vehicles to electric vehicles (EVs). In addition to reducing emissions, EVs offer improved efficiency and overall performance. However, to fully capitalize on this technology, it is crucial to have proper infrastructure and a well-organized charging station solution. Without these elements, the potential benefits can be wasted. One might question why an EV owner would bother going to a charging station when they can achieve the same charging speed at home. The answer lies in the time it takes to charge at home, which typically occurs overnight. DC charging stations, on the other hand, can significantly expedite the charging process for EVs. By minimizing power conversion losses, these stations deliver the maximum amount of power to the vehicle batteries, resulting in much faster charging speeds.
Reliability- Installing a DC charger represents a significant commitment and investment. It is crucial to ensure that these chargers are built to withstand even severe weather conditions and have a long lifespan. The key to addressing reliability concerns lies in using high-quality components in the equipment and implementing protective measures. For instance, incorporating fuses that safeguard power converters from overcurrent can enhance the overall reliability of the charging system.
Grid Integration- Future EVs serve as both energy consumers and potential energy sources, supplying stored energy back to the grid during high demand or power disruptions. Robust communication systems in EV charging stations are crucial for seamless data exchange between the vehicle, the grid, and the cloud while ensuring safety and security. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15118 standard establishes a bidirectional communication protocol, enabling vital information exchange for car identification, charge control, and status. Adhering to ISO 15118 standards ensures compliance and long-term design adaptability for grid integration.
Moreover, determining the ideal connectivity solution for EV chargers involves considering the use case, installation environment, and grid integration. Commercial chargers require cloud connectivity for billing and data insights, while residential chargers should integrate with existing networks in smart homes.
The Open Charge Point Protocol (OCPP) is the communication standard for charging stations and networks, supporting data exchange via Ethernet, cellular, Wi-Fi®, or Sub-1 GHz signals.
To meet OCPP flexibility requirements, chargers should offer diverse connectivity options. Wi-Fi enables integration with infrastructure or local connectivity, while Sub-1 GHz is reliable in challenging RF environments. Flexibility is crucial for commercial or residential chargers, ensuring stable connections and interoperability with networks, even in harsh conditions.
The EV charging industry is undoubtedly progressing, becoming more systemized, smart, and efficient. To truly benefit consumers, continuous upgrades and a customer-centric approach are essential in the design process. The charging station’s design plays a crucial role in shaping the overall customer experience and contributes significantly to the evolving EV industry.
As the demand for EVs continues to rise, the need for a suitable charging infrastructure becomes increasingly important. eInfochips has successfully assisted one of its clients in providing EV charging solutions for both residential and commercial segments. In response to the growing market demands, eInfochips helped the client upgrade their existing product line. To learn more about how eInfochips helped overcome this challenge, you can read the full case study here –
eInfochips has extensive experience in developing next-generation EV charging solutions for leading customers, resulting in award-winning products. In addition to designing and manufacturing EV charging hardware, we specialize in developing mobile/web apps, IoT management platforms, and IoT/cloud-enabled management platforms. To explore our range of key offerings and services, you can find more information here. If you would like to get in touch with our team of experts, please click here to contact us.