Traffic surveillance systems have been around for quite a while across various cities worldwide. The ubiquitous presence of closed circuit cameras, vehicle plate detection systems and LED lane control lights has made traffic and incident management smooth and efficient. With such advanced technologies changing the face of traffic systems, it was just a matter of time before sensor integration came to the fore.
Currently, magnetic loops are used to count and categorize vehicles on the street. The magnetic coil monitors the vehicles passing by while fetching other parameters like vehicle speed, traffic congestion, accidents and such. The basic requirement for traffic surveillance is to define how road traffic can be controlled and the process through which wireless sensor based systems should be analyzed. The traffic control system is a real time application in which the wireless sensor based network serves well. The reason behind it is that the WSN design can meet all real-time requirements for monitoring traffic and road conditions. Also, the sensor-based system offers energy-efficient operation, reliable data transmission, and accurate operations.
The key requirements of traffic surveillance system using wireless sensor networks are:
The traffic surveillance works in three main stages.
To provide energy efficiency, a sensor-node operates only when there is a vehicle on the road in certain proximity. The sensor node enters into sleep mode when there is no vehicle or specific event. The sensor-node identifies a vehicle by analyzing variations of magnitude of magnetic fields of earth occurred by a moving vehicle. So the signals when there is absolutely no obstacle, are compared to the signals when there are several obstacles and vehicles. This approach reduces the complexity between magnetic signals. A base-station calculates speed using vehicle detection data from sensor-nodes, distance between two sensor-nodes, and time data (clock ticks) of the vehicle detection.
The system is capable of accomplishing following tasks:
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