Purva Shah

Purva Shah

Purva Shah is a Marketing Associate at eInfochips, well versed in IT trends related to embedded analytics, IoT, and artificial intelligence. Prior to joining eInfochips, Purva completed her B.Tech in Electronics & Communication from Nirma University. Other than IT, Purva is interested in architecture, ancient history, and learning cultural arts.

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Model-based Design (MBD) of Mission-critical Avionics Systems

Model-based design techniques have gained a lot of significance in the aerospace industry. Here, we take a look into the methodology and its real world implications.


Recent advancements in hardware and software engineering have brought in greater levels of control, monitoring and communication functionality in aerospace. There’s a world of difference between the increasingly complex avionics systems of today that focus on digitization and data analytics, and an earlier era of document-centric systems engineering.


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As has always been the case, the most critical job for avionics engineers is to ensure the robustness of systems, their management and control. Also, it’s a big challenge to express highly integrated architecture in Interface Control Documents (ICD) because there are a number of protocols,  mission-critical functions, and software/hardware redundancies that have to be taken into account. A system engineer faces several challenges on this front while working on requirements based on texts alone because programs are susceptible to errors in the phase where requirements are being defined. Moreover, with the need for real time growth and improvements in design, the task of document maintenance becomes increasingly difficult.


Here we will discuss that compared to conventional text-based approaches, a model-based design (MDB) method in systems engineering is helpful in detecting defects at a far early stage. Model-based systems engineering brings together multiple math equations, object-oriented models, state machines, flow diagrams and block diagrams that can assist in the flow of data between subsystems. Also, it provides seamless strategy migration using documents on a model-based approach.


Model-based Design (MBD) & Development

A model is nothing but a combination of more than one artifact to present an idea/concept. The model acts as an abstraction particularly when the concept is a system and the model is based on the design aspects in the interest of the system.


The model is to be chosen in such a way that the scope, depth and the fidelity of the model fits the overall purpose which is to capture the static properties like hierarchical decomposition and interconnection of a system in an analytical or graphical way.


A successful system model should have the following characteristics:

  • A framework to solve problem in a coherent and consistent way
  • A solution that can satisfy the need of stakeholders
  • Integrity and consistency in the end systems
  • Insights revealing advantages of different possible approaches


MBD supports system design and development processes containing the generation and specifications of requirements, design, and operations as per a formalized application of modelling. It also applies to the physical level; verification/validation and integration of components as well as the system as a whole.

Testing, analyzing and reviewing a system can also be availed with the model-based approach of verification & validation. In this approach of development, there are models integrated in such a way that can support the whole system development to avail traceability between source documents, requirements, design and verification.


Model-based development also creates a possibility to synthesize software and implement code from the model automatically to reduce errors and increase productivity. Models use two critical elements including modeling language and methodology to solve problems.


The modeling language: It should be specific to the problem domain to which it is being applied. As an example, for both behavioral and structure, the languages differs for requirements and design. Even for various development disciplines like software, digital electronics, mechanical and electrical, languages differs.


Methodology: It is high level problem solving approach for collection of processes, tools and methods. A process is a particular sequence of tasks performed to achieve a particular objective, a method consists of the techniques to perform a task, and a tool is an instrument to enhance the efficiency of a task.



Some of the key benefits of MBD in avionics are:

  • Multidisciplinary analysis and design can improve development effectiveness
  • Quick requirement capture, validation, design artifacts, reused models, can improve development time and cost.
  • Risk of development reduces because program cost and schedule are well predicted.
  • Maintainability of system design can be enhanced with the help of change impact analysis and trade studies


Nowadays, the aerospace landscape is fast-paced where time is of the essence. In assembling the aircraft, the final requirement is to control and integrate the systems, which makes it difficult for avionics engineers to complete the tasks rapidly. To improve the level of safety in the midst of competitive markets and complex systems, there is a need for development productivity and efficiency. Thus, the success of model-based design and development in safety critical aircraft systems will depend directly on their ability to meet the demand of enhanced productivity.


How eInfochips can help

eInfochips has extensive experience both in Model-based design & Verification, and can help commercial aerospace companies migrate from DO-178B/ED-12B to DO-178C/ED-12C.


Check out another blog where we discussed a major application of Model-based design: ARP-4754 compliance.


eInfochips has accomplished complete model-based application development for electronic flight instrument system & display systems with deep expertise in MathWorks components like  Stateflow®, Simulink® Verification and Validation™, Polyspace static analysis and Model Advisor. 


About Author

purva shah
Purva Shah
Marketing Executive

Purva Shah is a Marketing Executive at eInfochips, well versed in IT trends related to embedded analytics, IoT, and artificial intelligence. Prior to joining eInfochips, Purva completed her B.Tech in Electronics & Communication from Nirma University. Other than IT, Purva is interested in architecture, ancient history, and learning cultural arts.

Reducing Air Traffic congestion with Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B)

According to IATA, global air traffic will continue to witness rapid growth in the next few years. Accordingly, the need to ensure better aviation safety standards and efficiency has acquired greater significance.


Take the example of radar coverage. Today, considering a rise in fleet traffic worldwide, airplanes have to be monitored and controlled with greater accuracy over a greater percentage of the earth surface than has ever been needed in the past. Even today, huge swathes of the Pacific Ocean near Australia and Hudson Bay in Canada are not under any radar coverage. For such expanses that are not under the radar surveillance, a new technology called Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast systems (ADS-B) has emerged which allows the remote aircraft to be visible on ATC screens using tactical deployment of low cost ADS-B receiving stations.


Aviation bodies like Airport Authorities of India, SESAR and the Next-Gen programme have recognized ADS-B as one of the most pioneering technologies in the aim of converting ATC from existing radar-based technologies to satellite-based global positioning system (GPS) surveillance.




What is ADS-B and how does it work?

ADS-B is a broadcast surveillance system used across aircraft-to-ATS and aircraft-to-aircraft applications. An aircraft with ADS-B enabled can determine its location on GPS which can then be broadcasted at rapid intervals to ADS-B receiving stations on the ground, along with other information like altitude, velocity, flight number. This helps in proper tracking of aircraft movement at all times while eliminating dependence on radar stations greatly preventing scenarios like the infamous MH-17 disappearance from radar.


The dedicated ADS-B ground stations utilize the received broadcast and further transmit the data to ATCs for accurate aircraft tracking. ADS-B brings into play latest technologies including space satellites, transmitters, and receivers to deliver highly specific information about airplane location and speed.


There are two concepts of ADS-B to bear in mind: ADS-B IN and ADS-B Out, as per the standpoint of an airplane. Aircrafts transmit ADS-B Out signals to the ground station or receiving aircraft. The ADS-B Out signals travel a line-of-sight from transmitting aircraft to receiving aircraft. ATCs of these ground stations, and of the other aircraft that are in the vicinity of the transmitting aircraft, receive ADS-B Out signal for the purpose of displaying air traffic. The receiving aircraft has Cockpit Displays of Traffic Information (CDTI) that showcase information relating to aircraft location (Altitude, velocity, longitude, latitude, flight number).


ADS1 1


The received ADS-B signal is called ADS-B In. Cockpit Display of Traffic Information can display traffic both near and away from the aircraft, at a distance of no more than 100 nautical miles of maximum range between transmitting and receiving aircraft. The ADS-B Out receiver of transmitting aircraft, sends across location and velocity information along with other data such as flight numbers and emergency status to the ground ADS-B and receiver aircraft ADS-B using digital datalink (1090 Mhz). Now, the aircrafts equipped with GPS receivers can determine their own location and velocity with the help of precise timing information sent by navigation satellites. ADS-B In receivers avail real time information of air traffic for the receiving aircraft as well as ground stations.


Further, airport taxiways and runways can also be monitored since ADS-B works very well at low altitudes, and on the ground. Furthermore, they can prove to be very useful in remote areas where radar coverage of radar is either not available or is severely limited.


ADS-B brings multiple benefits along with capacity, efficiency and security:

  • Situational cognizance of pilots and flight crew can be improved because ADS-B can predict their relative location compared to other aircrafts in the vicinity.
  • Provides real-time information and a collective surveillance picture to be shared in the event of any aircraft deviating from their assigned flight paths.
  • Compared to radar, ADS-B provides more precise and well-timed surveillance information as signals are sent out every half second.
  • ADS-B displays both airborne and ground traffic (taxiways and runways of airport).
  • It helps service the maintenance of runway approaches using cockpit display of traffic information in minimal visible weather environments.
  • It improves discernibility of all aircraft in the expanse to allow more aircrafts to use similar runways.
  • Improved procedural separation in non-radar airspace (NRA) compared to present separation (potentially 3 to 5 nautical miles).
  • With the help of more precise data, more numbers of aircrafts can fly together.
  • As an aircraft will fly with more efficient path, fuel consumption will be greatly reduced.
  • ADS-B can be implemented rapidly with relatively low cost as per existing digital technologies.


FAA has recognized that ADS-B can aid as the foundation of next wave in aviation safety, conveying the accuracy and trustworthiness of satellite based surveillance to the country’s skies.


With in-depth aerospace domain knowledge coupled with end to end technology capability and process (DO-178B/C, DO-254, and DO-160) expertise, eInfochips has supported DO-254 FPGA verification and DO-178C software verification for Next generation communication system that was using multiple satellite communication system. Leveraging deep expertise of navigation and communication systems we have supported on DO-254 design and verification for next Generation Iridium based SATCOM for transport aircraft.


For more details on eInfochips aerospace expertise, write us at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

About Author

purva shah
Purva Shah
Marketing Executive

Purva Shah is a Marketing Executive at eInfochips, well versed in IT trends related to embedded analytics, IoT, and artificial intelligence. Prior to joining eInfochips, Purva completed her B.Tech in Electronics & Communication from Nirma University. Other than IT, Purva is interested in architecture, ancient history, and learning cultural arts.

IoT in Aviation with System Wide Information Management

The aerospace industry has always been a keen adopter of disruptive technologies - from an earlier era of wireless radios to modern-day turbojet engines, gyroscopic instruments and GPS systems, aviation companies have always been at the forefront of integrating latest ideas into their design and manufacturing processes.
Internet of things (IoT) is one such transformational idea which will have significant impact on aerospace in the near future. With tens of billions of connected devices communicating with each other in future, aviation companies will be able to leverage the growing IoT trend and the power of Big Data to achieve endless benefits; which include, optimized fleet operations, better fuel economy, excellent safety and security standards, and even, autonomous unmanned commercial aircraft.


Thanks to IoT, enormous possibilities exist in the realm of improved customer engagement for airlines with greater personalization, passenger comfort, crew cabin facilities, and in-flight entertainment.
So, how is this new era of connected things for aviation going to shape up in the near term?

Let's start with the basics. As per a definitive IoT model, aircraft data is already being collected from various devices (e.g. transponders and engines) and transmitted through the network to cloud services, which means real-time operational intelligence drives productivity and reliability improvements. Communication happens through avionics receivers, Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System (ACARS) link and in-flight

Challenges in IoT adoption
At the moment, however, there is no single owner who can control the entire system or solution in commercial aviation. This is because an aircraft and all its associated ground repair & maintenance facilities systems are directly being managed by individual airlines, who don't always have access to technologies that can translate Big Data into meaningful, long-term savings.

Such an environment with multiple owners and tenants makes it extremely difficult to implement the advantageous concepts of IoT. In spite of the traditional nature of commercial aviation, the following two examples demonstrate the concept of IoT in aviation:

1. IoT system based on open architecture
2. IoT-based system for operations of individual devices in aerospace


Solution Example - System Wide Information Management (SWIM)




System Wide Information Management (SWIM) is the one such initiative designed by the FAA, on which one or more Cloud-based services can be implemented. SWIM collates all kinds of data including aircraft maneuvers, routine flight paths, coordination of takeoff and landing, weather statistics, and functional data about aircraft and airports. The open architecture framework of a cloud-based service permits system users to benefit from those new services. By linking data from various sources, additional benefits can be provided. For example, aircrafts running into instability can convey their information through SWIM to allow other airspace users to avoid that situation.

With mechanisms like these, data can be shared more efficiently across all aviation partners. This is accomplished through features like:

  • Connection among various data systems so that users can access multiple systems with a single connection.
  • Decoding data from different systems into a standard data format so that it can support collaboration among industries and government.
  • Providing related to weather and flight planning that will enable airline correspondents and traffic managers to co-operate on the routing and rerouting of traffic based on real-time information like current traffic management initiatives and airport runway configurations.
  • The SWIM Terminal Data Distribution System can decode the data into standard format, so that airlines can use this information to streamline surface operations.
  • Provides data access to traffic flow information to the subscribers of Aircraft Situation Display to Industry (ASDI).
  • Converting flight data into an easily accessible format by providing it in the form of general messages.
  • Various information like estimated time of arrival, scheduled time of arrival can help in better navigation planning.



eInfochips has extensive experience in designing smart IoT solutions for aerospace companies, e.g. integrating Brillo and Weave.

Operating individual devices using IoT in aerospace segment, has tons of challenges in aircraft type certificate which means that devices within the aircraft have to be certified for safety, typically following the DO-178 standard for software, and DO-274 for hardware. These requirements mean that development of IoT in aerospace is necessarily more complex than for similar consumer devices, but they can still profit from the opportunity and efficiencies that IoT enables.

It is required to ensure that safety critical flight systems or networks are not connected to devices through internet to protect them from malicious cyber attacks.  The availability of bandwidth is a crucial factor for this opportunity to be implemented.

To share your ideas, and know more on eInfochips IoT capabilities in aerospace, write us at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


About Author

purva shah
Purva Shah
Marketing Associate

Purva Shah is a Marketing Associate at eInfochips, well versed in IT trends related to embedded analytics, IoT, and artificial intelligence. Prior to joining eInfochips, Purva completed her B.Tech in Electronics & Communication from Nirma University. Other than IT, Purva is interested in architecture, ancient history, and learning cultural arts.


Accelerating ARP-4754 Compliance through Model Based Design

Technological innovations, lower oil prices and higher passenger affordability have made the aerospace industry one of the fastest growing in the world. Avionics systems have always been an integral part of aircrafts and associated systems, and need to be optimized for safety by law. As any kind of failure or malfunction is unacceptable, these systems need to be made highly reliable. Air-worthiness standards are mandatory to ensure basic airplane safety; hence the aerospace industry has defined several guidelines and certifications to enable decision-making.

 aerospace tech


The Need for Certification Guidelines

Since the last few years, the design architecture of avionics systems has increased in complexity and integration. Whereas earlier generations of avionics systems were often standalone or limited in integration, today’s systems are highly integrated and complex. They have evolved from physically separate systems into integrated, complex, software-intensive systems. This has resulted in a looming challenge: the possibility that certain failures in a non-integrated system which earlier would have had only a limited impact on other systems, are far more serious today. Hence, there is a need for aircraft systems to fully meet state-of-art technical requirements and guidelines laid down by the industry.


ARP-4754 Guidelines – The Need of the Hour!

Today, system design processes involve a high level of integration between aircraft functions and the systems that implement them. Although considerable value is gained by integrating these systems, there is an increased room for error, especially with functions that are carried out jointly across multiple systems. In order to respond to this integration requirement, the ARP-4754 guideline has been established:

  • ARP-4754 is one of the certification considerations for highly integrated or complex aircraft systems that have been widely applied in the process of airworthiness.
  • Prepared primarily for complex electronic systems, ARP-4754 provides guidelines for developing aircrafts and associated systems.
  • It addresses the system engineering aspects of aircraft certification including systems requirements, validation, design, and verification.
  • Supported by DO-178 and DO-254 which specify objectives for flight software and hardware certification respectively, ARP-4754 provides information about the use of modeling and simulation for requirements capture, prototyping, and requirements validation.


Verification and Validation Process

The process of verification and validation is crucial when it comes to avionics standards and encompasses a range of requirements including airplane, systems, subsystems and component level requirements. Since avionics standards are often far more detailed and rigorous than commercial standards, satisfying the objectives of a standard like ARP-4754 can be time-consuming and expensive. Rigorous and well-documented verification activities need to be carried out:

  • Identification of plan elements and documentation requirements
  • Identification of development phases
  • Defining the transition criteria for each phase
  • Identification of relationships or dependencies between elements
  • Handling of deviations
  • Identification of applicable processes and industry standards
  • Reviewing plans for accuracy, consistency, completeness
  • Design implementation and analysis
  • System integration
  • Certification


So how do avionics system manufacturers speed up the lengthy process of verification and validation and ensure efficient outcomes at the same time? Using model-based design techniques, avionics engineers can satisfy ARP-4754 objectives through early verification of requirements, automated connections to requirements and test case reuse – and all this while realizing cost and time-to-market benefits.


Model-based design techniques help improve product quality and reduce development time by half. Such techniques are transforming the way engineers work:

  • Automatically generate code for deployment
  • Create test benches for system verification
  • Use a common design environment
  • Link designs directly to requirements
  • Integrate testing with design
  • Refine algorithms through multi-domain simulation
  • Automatically generate embedded software code and documentation
  • Develop and reuse test suites


Ensuring First-time-right Cases

The ARP-4754 compliance verification through model-based design ensures streamlined production workflows, ensuring accelerated product development. Through a hybrid onsite-offshore engagement, companies can deliver turnkey software and functional verification solutions. The hybrid setup ensures test rigs are utilized 24x7, significantly improving delivery schedule. Through the use of Python scripting and by leveraging on tools like DOORS, Clear Quest and SVN, test cases can be developed and updated that ensure first time right cases.


To know more about eInfochips offerings in aerospace including ARP-4754 compliance, drop an email at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

About Author

purva shah
Purva Shah
Marketing Associate

Purva Shah is a Marketing Associate at eInfochips, well versed in IT trends related to embedded analytics, IoT, and artificial intelligence. Prior to joining eInfochips, Purva completed her B.Tech in Electronics & Communication from Nirma University. Other than IT, Purva is interested in architecture, ancient history, and learning cultural arts.

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